Solvents are used as ingredients in processing, mainly to reactivate vulcanised rubber, during the fabrication and finishing of tyres. The Pirelli strategy is focused on steady reduction of these substances, both through streamlined use of solvents and dissemination of solvent-free technologies for those operations that may be carried out even without the use of these substances. This strategy has translated into a more than 30% reduction in the specific consumption of solvents, and the related emission of volatile organic compounds, as compared with the forecast 15% reduction from 2009 levels, with aggregate related emissions slightly lower than total consumption.
For Pirelli, the responsible integration of its sites within the local territorial context is an essential cultural aspect. The greatest care is taken to guarantee that the corporate activities do not interfere with the typical biodiversity of the local environments. There are currently two Pirelli sites located inside protected areas that are extremely valuable in terms of biodiversity: the Vizzola Ticino site and the Gravataì site.
The Vizzola Ticino site, which has an area of 0.26 square kilometre, is part of the Parco del Ticino in Lombardy, an MAB (Man and Biosphere, a collection of 425 biosphere reserves located in 95 countries around the world) area of UNESCO. It features 27 species included on the IUCN Red List.
In view of better guaranteeing protection of the natural environment where the Vizzola test track is located, Pirelli has implemented an ISO 14001 certified Environmental Management System in accordance with the Parco del Ticino. The environmental impact on the biodiversity of the area is not significant; nevertheles, various activities have been undertaken to mitigate and improve the interaction of Pirelli activities with the natural context, performed directly both by the park administration, as agreed in writing in 2001, and aimed at improvement of the landscape and ecosystem functionality of the neighbouring areas or where the test track is located.
The Gravataì site in Brazil, measuring 0.57 square kilometre, including 0.16 square kilometre of land ecosystem protected under federal law. Here again, Pirelli has implemented an ISO 14001 certified environmental management system to guarantee that all potential impact on the environment and on biodiversity, while deemed relatively insignificant, be duly considered and managed in every case to reduce all possible interference to a minimum.
The NOX emissions derive directly from the generation of energy used. For this reason they are impacted, both in absolute terms and in relation to the unit of finished product, by energy consumption trends, to which a specific section has been dedicated elsewhere in this report.
The graph on the right shows the weight in 2013 of the direct and indirect emissions of NOX out of the total NOX emissions. The emissions have been calculated by using the emission factors defined BUWAL 250 and IDEMAT 2001.
DISTRIBUTION OF NOX EMISSIONS
EMISSIONS OF NOX
OTHER EMISSIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
The production process does not directly use substances that are harmful to the ozone layer. These are contained in certain closed circuits of the cooling and air conditioning plants. Therefore, except for accidental and unforeseeable losses, there are no free emissions into the atmosphere that can correlated to Pirelli manufacturing activities.
Direct emissions of SOX, caused by the combustion of diesel and fuel oil, was estimated to be about 325 tons in 2013 (U.S. EPA emissions standards).
The environmental management systems implemented at the production units have assured constant and prompt monitoring and intervention in potential emergency situations that may arise, as well as the reports received from stakeholders.
No significant environmental spills occurred in 2013, no complaints occurred in relation to significant environmental reasons, and no fines connected with them have been recorded.
EXPENSES AND INVESTMENTS
In 2013 environmental expenses and investments related to the manufacturing process totalled over euro 15 million. About 85% is covered by normal management and administration of factories, while the remaining 15% is dedicated to preventive measures and improvement in environmental management.
To complete the picture, it must be pointed out that, consistently with the materiality analysis at the beginning of this chapter, the most important expenses dedicated by Pirelli to the environment are definitely those related to product research and development. In 2013 the Company invested euro 199 million in research and innovation of its own products, with a constant focus on safety performance and reduction of environmental impact and, at the same time, production efficiency.